First vascular plants (possess special cells for moving water)

Tracheophytes are a clade of plants that possess vascular tissue (i.e. xylem / phloem). This group includes all vascular plants, such as clubmosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants, but also ancestral and extinct groups such as the rhyniophytes. These basal tracheophytes had tracheids that had a different wall construction than later more derived groups... but it was still xylem.

Ecology & Form


Above: (right) P-type; (middle) G-type; (left) S-type  





Geologic Range

Incertae sedis

Bitelaria dubjanski 

Above: Reconstruction of Bitelaria

Bowerophylloides mendozaensis

Above: Bowerophylloides mendozaensis † (Plate I, Edwards et al. 2001)

Eohostimella heathana

Above: Eohostimella fossils (from Fig.2 Schopf 1966)


H. robusta † (Li 1982)

H. deflexa (Wang et al. 2003)

Above: Hsüa deflexa † reconstruction (Fig 52 from Wang et al. 2003)

Below: Hsüa robusta † reconstruction (Fig 2 from Li 1982

Isidrophyton iniguezii

Above: Isidrophyton iniguezii (Plate II, Edwards et al. 2001)

Jiangyounia gengi 

Margophyton goldschmidtii

Pinnatiramosus qianensis


Polycladophyton gracilis 

Sennicaulis hippocrepiformis

Above: The S-type tracheids of Sennicaulis hippocrepiformis † (Fig 3, Kenrick et al. 1991)


Above: T. stilesvillensis  (Plate I, Taylor 1986)